Monday, May 25, 2020

Reaction Paper - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1318 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/12 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Elizabeth Cooper MGT-106 Ball May 20, 2010 Self-Assessment Reaction Paper Summary It is not easy to describe yourself and to be truly honest. The way you think of yourself and how another person might think of you could be completely different. This class has helped me to understand myself better and accurately describe me. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Reaction Paper" essay for you Create order If I had to describe myself, I would say that I am very laid back and easy going. I do not let small things bother me. I feel you should â€Å"pick your battles† sort of speak. I think I take after my mom. Growing up I never saw her really angry at anyone. She always gets a long with everyone and I think she rubbed off on me. I am also friendly and caring. I am always concerned with how people feel and how I can help others. I enjoy talking and being around all different types of people. Another word I would use to describe myself is hard-working. I always put 100% in everything I do. I like having a sense of accomplishment. I value friends, family, loyalty, and honesty and surround myself with people who also value these things. I do have a few concerns with myself however. Although I consider being able to trust people to be a good trait, being to trustworthy may be a bad thing. I feel that I can be to trustworthy at times. I trust everyone until he or she gives me a reason not to trust them. I feel that it is important to know if people are honest and trustworthy and I give everyone the benefit of the doubt. I have had a few problems in my past with trusting people before I really know them. For example, I was at a party one of friends was having and met this lady. My friend knew her and figured she was an alright person. A few days later I ran in to her and she asked to borrow a few dollars from me. She gave me a sad story and told me that she would be sure to pay me back the following week. The following week came and I did not hear from her. A few weeks later I ran into her and she never offered or mentioned the money she borrowed from me. I think this is a good example of being too trustworthy. Specific Strengths and Weaknesses The self-assessment exercises I did for this class really opened my eyes to what kind of person I am. I have learned a lot about myself that I was unaware of. 1)The results of The Locus of Control self-assessment exercise in chapter 2 really shocked me. I scored a twenty on the assessment, which meant that I believe that I am in control of my own destiny. Also, that I think very little is controlled by fate, chance, and other people. This shocked me because I thought I would have scored more in the middle because I do believe in fate and chance. I think that things happen f or a reason but it is up to us to do something about it. (2)The Big Five Personality exercise from chapter 2 also opened my eyes. My weakest dimension was surgency. According to these results, I am a follower and do not like to compete or influence. I on the other hand would not consider myself to be a follower. Although I do not like to lead, I do what I want to do. My strongest dimension was aggreeableness, which includes traits related to getting along with people. (3)In chapter 13 the self-assessment exercise was Your Decision Making Style. I scored a twenty on the exercise and the results showed that I have a consistent style. When I make a decision I always think about the decision and consider all alternatives before I make a decision. 4)The Networking Skill Self-Assessment exercise in chapter 11 really helped me learn just how important knowing people can help me in starting and bettering my career. It also helped me learn ways to plan my career. (5)The Openness to Change exercise proved that I am open to change. I do not mind trying new things but will do what I like to do best. (6)Chapter 4’s exercise really was a learning exper ience for me. It talked about techniques that can help me in time management. Making a to-do list, stop being a perfectionist, and only do one task at a time are things I learned can help me with time management. 7)Chapter 5’s exercise was a real eye opener. According to the Listening Skills exercise I am in the middle of being a good listener and poor listener. I have always thought of myself as a good listener but this exercise said otherwise. After reading the chapter and going over the exercise I agreed with the results. There are a few thing that I can do to improve my listening skills. (8)The Stress Personality-Type confirmed that I do stress. The results showed that I have a Type A personality, which means that I could end up with some of the problems associated with stress and I do agree with these results. 9)The Learning Style exercise helped me to learn why and how I learn the way I do. I scored a 16 in observing, 9 in doing, 8 in feeling, and 17 in thinking. The re sults concluded that my preferred dimension of learning is an assimilator, which combines observing and thinking. The book says that assimilators are skilled at creating models and theories and developing plans. They are skilled at understanding a wide range of information and putting it into concise, logical form. (10)The exercise in chapter 7 ( Use of the Assertiveness Style) concluded that my preferred style is assertive. People who use this behavior tend to have a positive self-concept. They are not threatened by others and do not let others control their behavior. All of these exercises helped me learn how to work with others better. They showed me ways to improve how I act and control myself around others. The Listening Skills exercise in chapter 5 will really impact how I work with others. I now know that I am not as good of a listener as I thought I was. Now that I know this, I can improve on how well I listen to others. Recommendations After completing all the exercises, I have learned that I need to do things a little differently. I definitely need to listen better and I plan too. Also I plan not to think about certain decisions too long. Although I have a consistent style, I know that sometimes I can over think things and in return make the wrong decision. I think I have good human relation skills already. So I plan to keep doing what I already do but change a few things. For example, I plan to start being a leader. I am going to step up and take control of situations I am in. Also, I plan to speak-up a little more and let people know exactly what I am feeling. Self-Reflection I have learned that life is full of surprises. How you think of yourself and how others think of you are most of the time going to be different until you are honest with yourself. I hope that when I graduate I am able to live a productive life-style. I hope to enjoy my job, family, friends, and life. Four years from now, I want to have a career as an RN and be settled in a home that I will live in for the rest of my life with my family. This class has helped me a lot. It taught me ways to improve myself. Also helped me learn ways to help me with time management. Which is going to be a big help, considering I have 2 children and a husband and plan to have a successful career.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Benefits Of Developing Countries Adopting Capital Controls...

Capital control is defined as a type of measure governments can use to regulate and restrict the amount of money flowing from capital markets in order to keep inflation under control while maintaining a competitive real exchange rate. International Monetary Fund (IMF) has been slowly shifting its beliefs to where capital control policies can be deemed useful for countries during a potential crisis. Some countries, especially the developing ones that implemented capital control policies have experienced success in the recovery of the economy upon the face of unfavorable economic conditions. This paper will explore on the cost and benefits of developing countries adopting capital controls during a recession, a case study on Malaysia’s†¦show more content†¦As a result, it raises volatility in consumption and income for these investors, as the investment portfolios is not fully diversified due to a lack of international investments to reduce other systematical risks. II. Benefits of developing countries adopting capital controls Capital restriction on inflows helps avoid foreign financing, restricting developing countries from being too dependent and vulnerable to sudden stops of capital inflow, which may lead to a financial crisis if the country is too reliant on such financing. The implementation of capital controls may help with the expansion of financial markets with improved development objectives, as well as reducing the growth and fuelling of asset bubbles (Cordoro and Montecino 4). Capital controls omits the possibility of investing in capital inflows inefficiently, thus does not triggers market distortions in a situation of over-investment in certain markets such as the recent burst of the dot com and housing bubble within the economy. Adopting capital controls have allowed developing countries with the ability to pursue a more independent monetary policy. This has led to positive GDP growth due to the promotion of stability in prices and reaching the level of sustainable output and employment growth. The implementation of capital controls prevents a large volume of capital inflow, avoiding the appreciation of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell - 1844 Words

1984 Book Report The novel â€Å"1984† by George Orwell is a highly praised and influential work in the dystopian genre. Since its release in 1949, its themes have been admired by many, and its world an alarming insight into a seemingly foreign, but very possible situation. The story is set in London, in the fictional superstate of Oceania, and more specifically â€Å"Airstrip one†, (formerly the British Isles). The main character, Winston Smith, is a member of the Outer Party, which makes up half of the Party that runs the government of Oceania, along with the Inner Party, who are more involved in the Party and are subject to more information than those of the Outer Party. He is employed by the Ministry of Truth, where he destroys evidence of the†¦show more content†¦Winston is walking down the hall of his apartment the next day when he approaches the woman. He suspects that she is a spy for the Thought Police, and believes he has been found out when the woman trips and falls and when Winston helps her up, she slips a piece of paper in his hand reading, â€Å"I love you†. The two would later have an affair confessing their hatred of the party to each other. They rent an unoccupied room above Mr. Charrington’s shop, not containing a telescreen, in which they spend a majority of their time together. Winston’s lover Julia is employed by The Ministry of Truth along with Winston. Later in their relationship, Winston becomes frustrated by Julia’s lack of concentration and interest in his ideas and comments. Some weeks later Winston is approached O’Brien and they decide to plan a meeting at O’Brien’s apartment. When the date comes, winston goes with Julia, and O’Brien explains the Brotherhood, to which both Winston and Julia pledge their allegiance. O’Brien plans a drop-off in which Winston receives a copy of â€Å"The Book†, an explanation of the motos and behaviors, such as perpetual war and the Party motos, IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH, WAR IS PEACE, and FREEDOM IS SLAVERY. Winston is reading the book to Julia in Mr. Charrington’s room, when they are barged in upon by Thought Police officials. They reveal the Telescreen concealed by a painting of St. Clement’s Church.Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell1205 Words   |  5 PagesThis phenomenon is evident in George Orwell’s novel, 1984 in which the protagonist, Winston possesses critical features of a rebel. The rebellious personality of Winston is first introduced to the reader through his thoughtcrime’s. This trait is also distinctly seen through the doubts he has towards the governing party. Finally, the characteristic of rebellion is also successfully shown through Winston’s desire for happiness. It is evident that through the novel 1984, Winston is a rebellious characterRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell1220 Words   |   5 PagesIn the novel 1984, written by George Orwell, there is a place called Oceania where the government is Big Brother. The government, the Party, and the Thought Police are constantly oppressing the citizens of Oceania. Most of the people don t know that they are being oppressed, but the two main characters, Julia and Winston are able to realize this oppression and don t stand for it. Winston and Julia absolutely hate the Party, and are constant breaking the â€Å"rules† of the Party. Julia is self-centeredRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell965 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novel â€Å"1984† by George Orwell, Winston wants to keep the humanity that so many people have lost. He sees everyone as robots controlled by the government that can no longer think for themselves, or remember any of the past before Big Brother came into power. Within the novel it seems as if people lose their humanity, but this poses the question what is humanity? Humanity can work both with and against the government, humans can be forced to believe the ideas of the government, and the powerRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell1782 Words   |  8 PagesIn the novel 1984, by George Orwell, the government of Oceania is able to have supreme control over its population. The citizens of Oceania live in angst of the â€Å"Big Brother.† This instills a great amount of fear in the citizens who believe they must fulfill the government s expectations. The government not only invaded the person privacy of the Oceanic citizens, but they took away their basic human rights. By stiripping its citizens of their rights, like freedom of speech, The Party is able toRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell1326 Words   |  6 PagesHow do you classify an individual’s freedom? Freedom can be defined as the power or right to act, speak and think without any restrictions and disciplines. George Orwell’s novel 1984, is about a dystopian society in which citizens don’t have any privacy and they are under constant surveillance by the Party. The setting of the novel describes the suppress of individuality and freedom in the society. However, Orwell’s definition of freedom is that people need to be given what they need and know theRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell1602 Words   |  7 Pagesupside-down society that is Nazi-Germany? While no other time period comes close, the novel we have been reading in class deals vigorously with dystopian society. 1984, by George Orwell, is a dystopian, fiction-based book that features a main character named Winston Smith, a girl named Julia, and many others who come together to make for a very intense storyline and an intriguing read. It takes place in Oceania, in 1984, while it was written in 1948. With a sense of science fiction, it’s set in near-futureRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell951 Words   |  4 PagesThe novel, 1984, composed by George Orwell, presents a frightening picture, where one government has complete control of the general population. The story takes place in London, England. The government that is made in the novel is controlled by Big Brother. In 1984, the protagonist, Winston, really despises the totalitarian government, that tries to control all aspects of his life. So many freedoms that we all need to live a happy and healthy life are being stripped away from the citizens of OceaniaRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell1289 Words   |  6 PagesThe novel â€Å"1984† by George Orwell explores the meaning of humanity and the tactics that a totalitarian government may use to strip humanity from the people in order to maintain power. The main character Winston strives to preserve his humanity throughout the novel in his ability to think freely. The government tries to control its constituent’s thoughts, through tactics of propaganda, regulation, telescreen monitors, the thought police, and five ministries. These tactics are to control the constituentRead MoreAnalysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell1772 Words   |  8 PagesIn the novel â€Å"1984† illustrated by George Orwell emphasizes a story of love, truth, and imaginations. The story was taken place in London but during the time they were always at war with Eurasia, Eastasia, and Oceania. There were two love birds in the story, which was Winston Smith and Julia, but were separated from each other, due to disobeying policies, being betrayed by the corrupt police, and always being watched by Big Brother. Big brother is nothing, but a piece of paper all over the placeRead MoreCommentary Analysis of George Orwell ´s Novel: 1984897 Words   |  4 PagesIn 1984 by George Orwell, the author depicts the perfect totalitarian society, a society that has absolute control over everything pertaining to its people. The title of the novel, 1984, was meant t o indicate to its readers in 1949 that the story represented a real possibility for the immediate future. If totalitarianism was not fought against, there was an actual risk that a similar civilization could come about. By demonstrating what a tyrannical society would be like, Orwell showed the control

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Citizens Rights and Responsibilities free essay sample

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens In today’s society, the responsibilities of the citizens are to know their rights. Citizens are expected to; understand the rules that our government has presented to us, abide by these rules for our own well being and freedom, and serve our communities and government back. In 1789, the Constitution of the United States was ratified. Many people were not pleased with this constitution; they felt as though it did not protect their rights to the fullest extent and wanted to amend the constitution. On December 15, 1791, the Constitution of the United States was amended and we were given ten amendments, known as The Bill of Rights, to protect our freedoms. The Bill of Rights is a list of the most important rights citizens have and value. The purpose of the bill is to protect against any infringement from the government, so the citizens can live in a free nation and have control over their communities and lives. We will write a custom essay sample on Citizens Rights and Responsibilities or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The first amendment on the Bill of Rights states, â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. † This amendment protects the right to fallow whatever religion one chooses to and be able to safely practice that religion. The amendment also grants one the freedom to say whatever they want, as long as it does not cause an out break of danger and chaos. Freedom of the press allows one to write and publish anything appropriate to the community. Freedom of assembly is the individual right to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue and defend common interests at certain times and places. Lastly, to petition the Government for a redress of grievances, this specifically prohibits Congress from abridging the right of the people. The second amendment; â€Å"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. This amendment guarantees a strong, well trained military to protect the United States. This amendment also protects the right to own a firearm and the government can’t say otherwise. â€Å"No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. † The third amendment states that soldiers are not allowed to be plac ed and granted access to live in ones home with out the owner agreeing to it first. The government may ask the owner, and with permission the soldier may take residency. The forth amendment states ; â€Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. This amendment protects the right of ones possession. Any representation of the government is not allowed to go though ones possessions and/or make an entry to ones living environment with out a warrant that allows such activities; then the government may search and take away personal belongings. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. The fifth amendment give one the right to refuse to answer a question because the response could provide self-incriminating evidence of an illegal conduct punished by fines, penalties or forfeiture. It also states that no one is to be denied the right to life, liberty, and property. Ones private property may not be taking by the government and used for the public without a higher consent. The sixth amendment of the Bill of Rights states; â€Å"In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. This gives everyone convicted of a crime the right to a trial by jury in the district where the crime was committed. â€Å"In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. † The seventh amendment codifies the right to a jury trial in certain civil trials. The eighth amendment prohibits the government from excessive bail and from harsh, unlawful punishment. â€Å"Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. † â€Å"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. † The ninth amendment addresses rights of the people that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution. The last amendment, the tenth amendment; â€Å"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people† restates the Constitutions principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states by the Constitution of the United States are reserved to the states or the people. The responsibilities of the citizens are also to vote, attend jury duty and to attend to community participation. Voting is not only a right, it is a privilege; by voting, the people have a voice in the government. If one is presented with the task of jury duty, they are expected to take off from work and attend. Jury duty is an important way to participate in government, unique to America and fundamental to preserving our commitment to government by the people. These are all rights for us, the citizens, as a way to retain control of our own lives and communities with out the infringement of the government so the government doesn’t have complete control. Work Sited: http://www. kids. gov/6_8/6_8_government_rights. shtml http://www. archives. gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript. html Citizens Rights and Responsibilities free essay sample In today’s society, the responsibilities of the citizens are to know their rights. Citizens are expected to; understand the rules that our government has presented to us, abide by these rules for our own well being and freedom, and serve our communities and government back. In 1789, the Constitution of the United States was ratified. Many people were not pleased with this constitution; they felt as though it did not protect their rights to the fullest extent and wanted to amend the constitution. On December 15, 1791, the Constitution of the United States was amended and we were given ten amendments, known as The Bill of Rights, to protect our freedoms. The Bill of Rights is a list of the most important rights citizens have and value. The purpose of the bill is to protect against any infringement from the government, so the citizens can live in a free nation and have control over their communities and lives. We will write a custom essay sample on Citizens Rights and Responsibilities or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The first amendment on the Bill of Rights states, â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. † This amendment protects the right to fallow whatever religion one chooses to and be able to safely practice that religion. The amendment also grants one the freedom to say whatever they want, as long as it does not cause an out break of danger and chaos. Freedom of the press allows one to write and publish anything appropriate to the community. Freedom of assembly is the individual right to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue and defend common interests at certain times and places. Lastly, to petition the Government for a redress of grievances, this specifically prohibits Congress from abridging the right of the people. The second amendment; â€Å"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. This amendment guarantees a strong, well trained military to protect the United States. This amendment also protects the right to own a firearm and the government can’t say otherwise. â€Å"No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. † The third amendment states that soldiers are not allowed to be plac ed and granted access to live in ones home with out the owner agreeing to it first. The government may ask the owner, and with permission the soldier may take residency. The forth amendment states ; â€Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. This amendment protects the right of ones possession. Any representation of the government is not allowed to go though ones possessions and/or make an entry to ones living environment with out a warrant that allows such activities; then the government may search and take away personal belongings. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. The fifth amendment give one the right to refuse to answer a question because the response could provide self-incriminating evidence of an illegal conduct punished by fines, penalties or forfeiture. It also states that no one is to be denied the right to life, liberty, and property. Ones private property may not be taking by the government and used for the public without a higher consent. The sixth amendment of the Bill of Rights states; â€Å"In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. This gives everyone convicted of a crime the right to a trial by jury in the district where the crime was committed. â€Å"In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. † The seventh amendment codifies the right to a jury trial in certain civil trials. The eighth amendment prohibits the government from excessive bail and from harsh, unlawful punishment. â€Å"Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. † â€Å"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. † The ninth amendment addresses rights of the people that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution. The last amendment, the tenth amendment; â€Å"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people† restates the Constitutions principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states by the Constitution of the United States are reserved to the states or the people. The responsibilities of the citizens are also to vote, attend jury duty and to attend to community participation. Voting is not only a right, it is a privilege; by voting, the people have a voice in the government. If one is presented with the task of jury duty, they are expected to take off from work and attend. Jury duty is an important way to participate in government, unique to America and fundamental to preserving our commitment to government by the people. These are all rights for us, the citizens, as a way to retain control of our own lives and communities with out the infringement of the government so the government doesn’t have complete control.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

What is the Meaning of Life Essay Example For Students

What is the Meaning of Life? Essay What is the Meaning of Life? Essay This question has puzzled the human race for about as long as it has existed. This begs the question, if no-one has thought of an answer by now, no-one including geniuses such as Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, then why ask a fourteen year old boy? The answer to that is simple, I am a complete and utter genius, a super genius if you will. Of course this idea is quite laughable, and the real reason one might perhaps ask me is to evaluate my understanding of the following: Where am I going? Different philosophies of life We will write a custom essay on What is the Meaning of Life? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Why some people are religious What makes someone religious Why Catholics are religious Can a person be Christian just by being good How Catholics find meaning and purpose Vocation And so on and so on. Personally I think there is no meaning to life and life is what you make of it, but that is not the answer that is expected of me, in fact the answer expected of me is probably along the lines of this What is the meaning of life? What is the meaning of life? Everyone has wondered about the answer to this question at some point in their lives, in fact this question builds the bases of a mid-life crises. At about forty men and women start going, whats the point, who cares anymore? What IS the meaning of life? whether this is true or not I wouldnt know, never having experienced a mid-life crises myself, being, as I mentioned earlier, only fourteen. Nevertheless, it is an important question. Now before I inform you of my revised opinion of this question, lets first take a look at other peoples views. Being as there are a wide variety of people on this planet there are a wide variety of answers to this question. These range from the meaning of life is to become a {insert name of cult, religion, organisation etc here} to the meaning of life is to eat your own foot. The question then is which one is right. The answer to that question is, they all are okay, maybe not, but they are all right in the individual mind of each person who created that singular answer, this is also not true but it is a very good lie. However if you yourself have no answer to this question then you are likely to come under one of the following: Existentialist, Humanist, Materialistic, Nihilist or Religious. These are the main philosophies of life, existentialism being the a philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of ones acts. Humanism being a philosophy that centres on humans and their values, capacities, and worth. Materialism being the philosophy that physical well-being and worldly possessions constitute the greatest good and highest value in life. Nihilism being the rejection of all distinctions in moral or religious value and a willingness to repudiate all previous theories of morality or religious belief. And finally religious which is having or showing belief in and reverence for God or a deity. It is of course possible to come under more of one of the above. There, you now know what you are, happy? No, of course your not, you want to know more dont you? Okay, fineWhy would someone become religious? Thats a good question. Well the answer to this for most people is surprisingly easy, because they have no choice, they where baptised before they could even talk. But what about adults who get baptised? I hear you cry, well okay, I dont because Im sure youre a) not that sad, and b) I cant hear youbut anyway, why would someone become religious of their own free will? This could happen for two reasons, okay, three: One) They suddenly decide its their vocation, their calling and go out to become religious because they feel like it, Two) They need some sort of forgiveness or absolution because theyve done something wrong, and Three) By accident, you know the .

Monday, March 9, 2020

The Complete Guide to SAT Grammar Rules

The Complete Guide to SAT Grammar Rules SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Even though the English language is complex, the SAT tests a specific set of grammar rules. Furthermore, it tests these rules the same way, over and over again. In this complete guide, we've compiled acomprehensive list of SAT grammar rules you need to know to ace the SAT Writing and Language section. If you master all these rules and practice them with realistic questions, you'll have a huge advantage on SAT Writing and Language. Unlike other guides, oursfocuses on providing you with lots of examples to help you understand how the grammar rule will show up on the SAT. After all, you need to master the SAT format to do well on the SAT! Concision and Redundancy There are times when saying something twice is needed: for emphasis, to review a difficult topic, or to explain something more clearly.The SAT, however, is all about being as succinct and to the point as possible. Your ability to edit the fat out of sentences is tested in three ways:fixing overly wordy phrases, finding redundancies, and combining two simple sentences into a more complex one. Overly WordyPhrases The SAT deeply believes in Shakespeare's maxim that â€Å"brevity is the soul of wit†: if you can say the same thing with fewer words,do it. It’s tempting to think that when a sentence uses a multi-word phrase where a single word will do, the sentence sounds formal or more academic. But this is not the case.Often, one word is better than many words(examples 1 and2). Sometimes, a sentence might use words that don’t serve any purpose and don’t even need to be replaced but rather deleted altogether (examples 3 and4). Examples Error:Thinking in a manner more general, we can say that good schools enable people to learn more. Fix:Generally, we can say that good schools enable people to learn more. Error: The company might not be awarded the contract because it lacks production facilities, making ita worse choicefrom a theoretical way of speaking. Fix: The company might not be awarded the contract because it lacks production facilities, making ita worse choicetheoretically. Error: Although hesitant to challenge herself at first, the student decided to enroll in threeAP courses, twohonors courses,and an intensive art course on top of that. Fix: Although hesitant to challenge herself at first, the student decided to enroll in threeAP courses, twohonors courses,and an intensive art course. Error: When the audience stood to applaud the speaker, it was clear that her words had hada marvelous, even stupendous, effecton the crowd. Fix: When the audience stood to applaud the speaker, it was clear that her words had hada marvelous effecton the crowd. Redundancy If a sentence expresses the same bit of information two or more times,it’s considered redundant.Pick the best way of stating the necessary fact and delete the repetition. Examples Words or phrases that mean the same thing as each other are underlined. Error: The stock market mightrepeatits drop and rise patternagain, warns the financial forecast. Fix: The stock market mightrepeatits drop and rise pattern, warns the financial forecast. Error:Soona relative calm period followedquicklyafter the brunt of the cyclone had passed. Fix:A relative calm period followed quicklyafter the brunt of the cyclone had passed. Error: Management was surprised to seeabiannualuptick in salestwice each year. Fix: Management was surprised to see a biannual uptick in sales. Combining Simple Sentences Sometimes, in order to write with concision, you have tocombine simple or related sentences into one.Don’t worry about keeping word order, as this kind of revision often requires you to shift things around. To combine sentences correctly, ask yourself the following questions: Is there a person, place, thing, or concept that both sentences are talking about?If so, you can make one sentence into a dependent clause of the other through the repeated noun (example 1). Is there a chronological sequence that the two sentences are describing?Then you can make one into a dependent clause of the other using prepositions such asbefore, after,andfollowing(example 2). Does one sentence define the other?Combine them by inserting whatever is being defined into the defining sentence (example 3). Examples The nouns, chronology, or definitions used to combined the sentences are underlined. Error: The voting rate has not decreased amonguneducated citizens.Uneducated voterscontinue to vote for better schools. Fix: The voting rate has not decreased amonguneducated citizens, whocontinue to vote for better schools. Error: Young musicians are encouraged to perfect their techniques and skills through their conservatory training.After this, they can start their careers in small, local orchestras. Fix:After perfecting their techniques and skills through their conservatory training, young musicians can start their careers in small, local orchestras. Error: The conclusion scientistscame to is the idea that instead of being made up of particles, matter is actually made out of one-dimensional objects called strings.This is string theory. Fix:The conclusion scientistscame to is string theory, the idea thatinstead of being made up of particles, matter is actually made out of one-dimensional objects called strings. Redundancy: good for mountain climbing, bad for writing. Idioms and Conventional Expressions The SAT tests your knowledge of common English usage, includingtwo types of idioms. First, there areexpressions that mean something different from the actual words being used(such asraining cats and dogsorkick the bucket). Secondly, there areshort phrases or groups of words thatalwaysgo together(such asstumble onorkeep at bay). You'll also be asked to distinguish amongfrequently confused homonyms- that is, words that sound like each other but are used in different circumstances as they mean different things. One common example isbearvsbare. Verbal Phrases The SAT particularly loves one type of idiom called verbal phrases, which areverb + preposition pairs,andwants to check that you know for sure which preposition is correct. Examples Error: The show wasfollowed onan encore. Fix: The show wasfollowed byan encore. Error: She isresponsible ofreturning her library books. Fix: She isresponsible forreturning her library books. Error: One shouldrefrain fortexting while driving. Fix: One shouldrefrain fromtexting while driving. PrepositionalIdioms These are just like verbal phrases except they don’t involve verbs; rather, they're groups of words thatalwaysend on a specific preposition. Examples Error: The translucent sculptureused light as ameans throughconnecting viewers standing across from each other. Fix: The translucent sculptureused light as ameans ofconnecting viewers standing across from each other. Error:In accordance tothese findings, future research will focus on analyzing the effect of facial expressions on mirror neurons. Fix:In accordance withthese findings, future research will focus on analyzing the effect of facial expressions on mirror neurons. Commonly Confused Words English hasa lot of words that sound similar to each other but mean very different things.Here is averyincomplete list of examples of these words (you can find more by searching for â€Å"commonly confused words† on Google): Accept:to receive(verb)Except:with the exclusion of(preposition) Affect:to influence(verb);emotional response(noun)Effect:result(noun);to cause(verb) Beside:close to; next toBesides:except for; in addition to Complement:something that completes(noun);to pair well with(verb)Compliment:praise, flattery(noun) Eminent:prominentImminent:about to happen Precede:to come beforeProceed:to continue, to keep going Sight:scene, view, picture, being able to seeSite:place, location; a web pageCite:to quote, to point to evidence Then:an adverb denoting timeThan:a conjunction used in comparisons Examples Error: After losing his hearing, Beethoven had to rely on his imagination to hear his music, ratherthenlistening to musicians perform it. Fix: After losing his hearing, Beethoven had to rely on his imagination to hear his music, ratherthanlistening to musicians perform it. Error: Despite hours of work, the web administration team was unable to restore thesightafter the denial of service attack. Fix: Despite hours of work, the web administration team was unable to restore thesiteafter the denial of service attack. Error: The presidential candidate used rhetorical flourishes to greataffectin his speech and received a standing ovation. Fix: The presidential candidate used rhetorical flourishes to greateffectin his speech and received a standing ovation. Language Formality When writing for school, work, or publication in a news or scientific journal, you have to use formal English.This means you need toavoid slang and words and phrases that sound too casual.It’s important to keep each sentence at the same language elevation. Examples Error:A bunchof guys doing experimentswas able to synthesize a lithium-ion battery smaller than a grain of sand. Fix:A team of researcherswas able to synthesize a lithium-ion battery smaller than a grain of sand. Error: In 1559, at London’s Westminster Abbey, Elizabeth Tudor, the 25-year-old daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn,got to becomeQueen Elizabeth I. Fix: In 1559, at London’s Westminster Abbey, Elizabeth Tudor, the 25-year-old daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn,was crownedQueen Elizabeth I. Inappropriate informality won't get you into the duke's exclusive club either. Conjunctions and Conjunctive Adverbs Conjunctions and conjunctive adverbsare words that explain how two clauses in a sentence, or how to two or more successive sentences, relate to one another. The SAT checks your ability to use conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs toclarify cause and effect or logicwithin sentences. Explanation Some conjunctions link events in a cause-and-effect relationship to point outwhat happened as a result of something else.Here are some examples of these words, along with their meanings: Because:what has just been said is true as a consequence of what is about to be said Thereforeandhence:it follows from what has just been said that For exampleandfor instance: here is evidence that backs up the previous argument Whereby:by which; using theidea/principle/concept just mentioned; by means of Consequently:directly following the thing that has just been described Examples The incorrect conjunctions are in bold, while the correct ones are underlined. Error: Recent advances in medicine include a new MRI technique for detecting heart damage in chemotherapy patients.However,doctors will be able to see heart defects earlier and more effectively. Fix: Recent advances in medicine include a new MRI technique for detecting heart damage in chemotherapy patients.Consequently, doctors will be able to see heart defects earlier and more effectively. (Doctors can see better as a result of the new MRI test.) Error:Not onlyhave archaeologists in Britain unearthed several well-preserved Bronze Age dwellings, we are getting new insight into domestic life 3,000 years ago. Fix:Becausearchaeologists in Britain have unearthed several well-preserved Bronze Age dwellings, we are getting new insight into domestic life 3,000 years ago. (We are getting insight as a result of dwellings being unearthed.) Error: Foreshadowing, a literary techniquewhenan author hints at what will happen later in the text, is a useful tool for setting the right atmosphere. Fix: Foreshadowing, a literary techniquewherebyan author hints at what will happen later in the text, is a useful tool for setting the right atmosphere. (An author hints by means of foreshadowing.) Contradiction or Digression Other conjunctions can be useful for describing anegative or opposing relationship between events.These words can explain that something happened despite something else, or even though common sense would have not predicted it. They can also indicate that the argument is shifting to a different point. However:introduces a statement/idea that contradicts what has just been said On the one hand, on the other hand:presents two ideas that oppose each other (thesealwaysgo together) But:despite what has just been said, here is information to the contrary Nevertheless:in spite of what has just been said Aside from:the example that follows is an exception to what is being discussed Whileandwhereas:in contrast or comparison with the fact that Examples The incorrect conjunctions are in bold, while the correctones are underlined. Error: The pianist had not had nearly enough time to study and practice the sonata,andshe played it flawlessly. Fix: The pianist had not had nearly enough time to study and practice the sonata,butshe played it flawlessly. (The flawlessness happened despite the lack of practice time.) Error:Just ascrayons are a medium generally reserved for young children, professional artists have used them to great effect. Fix:Thoughcrayons are a medium generally reserved for young children, professional artists have used them to great effect. (That professional artists have used crayons contrasts withthe fact that crayons are usually for children.) Similarity and Emphasis The final category of conjunctive adverbs connects things that areequal or similar,or adds examples that emphasize the direction of the argument. Moreover:as an additional- potentially more convincing or important- matter Just as:in comparison to; similar to Likewise:in the same way; also Not only, but also:presents two ideas that support and emphasize each other (thesealwaysgo together) Examples The incorrect conjunctions are in bold, while the right ones are underlined. Error: Investing money is one way to plan for the future.Hence,another good long-term planning option is to take advantage of a retirement savings account. Fix: Investing money is one way to plan for your future.Likewise, another good long-term planning option is to take advantage of a retirement savings account. (The word â€Å"another† means that two similar things are being discussed.) Error: Dressing to attract attention can affect the way people perceive you.Nevertheless,it can be inappropriate depending on the context. Fix: Dressing to attract attention can affect the way people perceive you.Moreover, it can be inappropriate depending on the context. (The inappropriateness is an additional, more significant effect of attention-getting clothing.) Honestly, this is in no way connected to conjunctive adverbs. However, look- cute! Punctuation There are manypunctuationrules in English, but, fortunately, the SAT doesn’t test all of them. Instead, the test focuses on several specific types. Punctuating Modifiers Phrases that modify or describe a part of a sentence arepunctuated differently depending on whether they are an essential or nonessential part of the sentence. If the sentence needs the modifier in order to make sense, the modifier isrestrictiveanddoesn’tget surrounded by commas.If you can easily take out the modifier without losing the sentence’s meaning, the modifier isnonrestrictiveand should be surrounded by commas like this: Put one comma rightafteramodifier that starts a sentence. Put one comma rightbeforea modifier that ends a sentence. If the modifierappears in the middle of the sentence,surround itwith commas on both sides. Examples Incorrect and correct punctuation areunderlined. Error:US President, Barack Obama,will meet with his counterparts from the European countries for the multinational summit. Fix:US President Barack Obamawill meet with his counterparts from the European countries for the multinational summit. (Since â€Å"Barack Obama† is key to the sentence's meaning,no commas are needed.) Error:The daisy, a perennial plant, sometimes known as bruisewort,grows low to the ground. Fix:The daisy, a perennial plant sometimes known as bruisewort,grows low to the ground. (The modifier just needs to be surrounded by commas and doesn’t need any commas inside it.) Error:Started on a whim by an eccentric resident;the project to clean up the abandoned lot soon became a popular neighborhood pastime. Fix:Started on a whim by an eccentric resident,the project to clean up the abandoned lot soon became a popular neighborhood pastime. (The modifier should be set off by a comma, not a semicolon.) Error: This last part of the minuet should be playedwith steadily increasing volume, or crescendo;until the final chord. Fix: This last part of the minuet should be playedwith steadily increasing volume, or crescendo,until the final chord. (â€Å"Crescendo† is beingdefined, so it needs to be set off by commas, not semicolons.) Using Dashes Think of dashes as being kind of like parentheses.Dashes separate out a sentence piece that is explanatory but not crucial,like an aside or something muttered under your breath. Sometimes this piece is a digressive thought; sometimes it's a list of examples. Typically, the phraseinside the dashes has commas in it, so dashes are the best way to set it off from the rest of the sentence.If the phraseis in the middle of the sentence, it must be surrounded by dashes onbothsides. Examples Incorrect and correct punctuation areunderlined. Error: The hairstylist picked up thescissors- the kind that usually sit in the jar of blue liquid,and started to snip bits of hair off his client’s head. Fix: The hairstylist picked up thescissors- the kind that usually sit in the jar of blue liquid- and started to snip bits of hair off his client’s head. Error: The best hotel concierges havemany skills: knowledge of foreign customs, the ability to speak several languages, and a charming manner,that put even the most diffident guests at ease. Fix: The best hotel concierges havemany skills- knowledge of foreign customs, the ability to speak several languages, and a charming manner- that put even the most diffident guests at ease. Error: After readers foundthe errors, all 243 of them- the publishing company was forced to issue a reprint of the book. Fix: After readers foundthe errors- all 243 of them- the publishing company was forced to issue a reprint of the book. Punctuating â€Å"Such As† The phrasesuch asintroduces a series of examplesto back up a point that’s just been made. The correct way to punctuate it is to put a comma beforesuch as,and then no comma before the first list item or example. Examples Incorrect and correct punctuation areunderlined. Error: Teachers give out a variety ofhomework assignments, such as, worksheets,hands-on projects, and online quizzes. Fix: Teachers give out a variety ofhomework assignments, such as worksheets,hands-on projects, and online quizzes. Error: The antique book shop also sold otherpaper ephemera such as, mapsand newspapers. Fix: The antique book shop also sold otherpaper ephemera, such as mapsand newspapers. Formatting Lists A list is a series of people, ideas, objects, actions, or conditions that follow one another, play the same role in the sentence, and aretypically separated by commas.In fact, that last sentence has two lists: â€Å"people, ideas, objects, actions, or conditions† and â€Å"follow one another, play the same role in the sentence, and are separated by commas.† See what I did there? Punctuation rules for lists are as follows: They should beseparated by commas,with a comma coming before the â€Å"and† or â€Å"or† that precedes the last list item:dogs, cats, gerbils, and fish. If one of the list items has a comma within it, then all the list items should beseparated by semicolons instead:shaggy, purebred dogs; white cats; soft, cuddly gerbils; and fish. Examples Incorrect and correct punctuation areunderlined. Error: The market stall sold ripeapples, cherries; andsometimes even apricots. Fix: The market stall sold ripeapples, cherries, andsometimes even apricots. Error: The class focused on programminglanguages, such as Python; algorithms; anddocumentation. Fix: The class focused on programminglanguages, such as Python, algorithms, anddocumentation. Using Colons Colons are used in two different ways. First, they can indicate thata list is coming up,and that after the list the sentence will end: Here is my list of acceptable pets: dogs, cats, gerbils, and fish. Second, they are used to indicate that anexplanation, a definition, or an example of what has just been saidis coming: My search for the perfect pet came down to man's best friend: a dog. Examples Incorrect and correct punctuation areunderlined. Error: It’s easy to explain why many 12th graders start taking school less seriouslytoward the end of the year; senioritis. Fix: It’s easy to explain why many 12th graders start taking school less seriouslytoward the end of the year: senioritis. ("Senioritis" is the defined term.) Error: The more I cook at home, the more kitchen techniquesI learn, knife skills,mise en place, and cooking several dishes simultaneously. Fix: The more I cook at home, the more kitchen techniquesI learn: knife skills,mise en place, and cooking several dishes simultaneously. (â€Å"Learn† introducesa list.) Error: Consider lobsters,for example, with age,they only get stronger and more fertile. Fix: Consider lobsters,for example: with age,they only get stronger and more fertile. ("Example" introducesan explanation.) Using Semicolons Semicolons have two basic functions. First, in lists theyseparate items that have commas: We atemushrooms, which had been picked in a nearby forest; herbs, nuts, and berries foraged from a public park; and homegrown apples. Second, theyfix run-on sentencesby separating two independent clauses without a conjunction: Jim rode his bike; Mary walked. Examples Incorrect and correct punctuation areunderlined. Error: The State Department completed threeassignments: diplomatic talks, led by an expert in armscontrol, a bilateralmeeting, chaired by an assistantdirector, anda state visit. Fix:The State Department completedthreeassignments: diplomatic talks, led by an expert in armscontrol; a bilateralmeeting, chaired by an assistantdirector; anda state visit. (Two of the three list items have commas in them, so they are separated by semicolons.) Error:The architect worked on the model allnight, he wasbleary-eyed during the presentation. Fix:Thearchitect worked on the model allnight; he wasbleary-eyed during the presentation. (These are independent clauses, so they should be connected bya semicolon.) Semicolon, meet semi-cake. Sentences Sentences are made up of groups of words that are called clauses.There are two types of clauses: independentand dependent. An independent clausecan function as a complete sentence because it has a subject-verb pair and does not start with a word or phrase that makes the clause dependent, such aswhenorbecause. Meanwhile,a dependent clausemustbe attached to an independent clause to be part of a complete sentence. The SAT tests three different types of clause-related situations:fixing sentence fragments, splitting up run-on sentences, and using a dependent clause as the subject of a sentence. Sentence Fragments A sentence fragment isa sentence made of anything less than an independent clause.To fix it, we either connect the fragment to an independent clause (examples 1 and 2), or add the missing subject or verb (example 3). Examples In these sentences,subjects are underlined and verbs are inbold. Error: To boost the number of women in STEM fields, including electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering. Fix: To boost the number of women in STEM fields, including electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering,senior female executivesalsoactas mentors to young women. Error: From diving hard for every attempted shot to deftly throwing the ball to the most open defender. Fix: From diving hard for every attempted shot to deftly throwing the ball to the most open defender, thegoaliewas savingher team at a time when they needed her. Error: For the sake of a better experience at school, asking his adviser for a new room assignment. Fix: For the sake of a better experience at school, thefreshmanaskedhis adviser for a new room assignment. Run-on Sentences A run-on sentence is made ofmultiple independent clauses joined by only a comma or no punctuationat all. To find the correct answer on the SAT, look for an answer choice that uses one of these three fixes: If one independent clause is an explanation or definition of the other, adda word such asbecauseorwhichto the beginning of the explanation (examples 1 and2). If neither independent clause defines or explains the other, combine them with either a comma + conjunction (such asandorbut),orwith a semicolon (examples 3 and4). Alternately, split them up into two separate sentences (example 5). Examples The separation between the two independent clauses is marked with|, while the correction is underlined. Error: The dog Mary wants to put in the dog show is a beagle,|it is a medium-sized member of the hound family. Fix: The dog Mary wants to put in the dog show is a beagle,whichis a medium-sized member of the hound family. Error: The deli had no milk left after a rush of morning customers,|the owner rushed to order more. Fix:Becausethe deli had no milk left after a rush of morning customers, the owner rushed to order more. Error: My favorite Mediterraneanspreadishummusitisvery garlicky. Fix: My favorite Mediterraneanspreadishummus, asitisvery garlicky. Error: Air plants like the Tillandsia species are tolerant of a wide range of climates,|they thrive in room temperatures. Fix: Air plants like the Tillandsia species are tolerant of a wide range ofclimates; theythrive in room temperatures. Error: Deciding which play to put on is only the first step,|even a great script won’t succeed without a well-selected cast and a set design that works with the director’s vision. Fix: Deciding which play to put on is only the firststep. Evena great script won’t succeed without a well-selected cast and a set design that works with the director’s vision. DependentClauses as Sentence Subjects Sometimes, instead of having a simple noun for a subject, a sentence canuse a whole dependent clause as a subject. When this happens,treat the dependent clause as a singular noun. For instance, in the first example, the clausewhoever came up with the idea to put solar panels on rooftopsis the subject of the sentence. Youcan tell by using this trick:replace the clause with a singular noun, such asAlbert Einstein,to see whether the sentence still works. When we do this here, we can see thatAlbert Einstein are geniusesdoesn't work; therefore, the verb needs to be singular to match the subject. Examples The subordinate clause that is the subject is underlined, whilethe verb it's doing is bold. Error: Whoever came up with the idea to put solar panels on rooftops are geniuses. Fix:Whoever came up with the idea to put solar panels on rooftopsisa genius. Error: That cleaning a kitchen is a repetitive chore which makes it especially thankless. Fix:That cleaning a kitchen is a repetitive choremakesit especially thankless. Does his over-reliance on your milk and cookies make hima dependent Claus? Faulty Modifiers A modifier is a word or phrase that describes (i.e., modifies) something. There are two kinds of modifier problems tested on the SAT: dangling modifiers and misplaced modifiers. Dangling Modifiers A dangling modifier is a descriptive phrasethat begins a sentence, has a comma after it, and has the noun it describes not placed right after the comma. In the first example below, the modifier coating the sidewalk is supposed to describe the snow. However, since we is the first word after the comma, the sentence makes it sound like we are the ones coating the sidewalk. Examples Modifiers are underlined, while the nouns being correctly and incorrectly modified are in bold. Error: Coating the sidewalk, we trudged through the heavy snow. Fix: We trudged through the heavy snow coating the sidewalk. Error: Long and tangled, it was difficult to comb the child's hair. Fix: Long and tangled, the child's hair was difficult to comb. Error: Exhausted and weak, the soldiers' uniforms were covered in frost. Fix: Exhausted and weak, the soldiers were covered in frost. Misplaced Modifiers A misplaced modifier is a descriptive phrasethat's not close enough to the thing it's supposed to bedescribing, making it sound like it'sreferring tothe wrong thing. In the first example below, the modifier on the sale rack is supposed to show where the jacket is hanging. However, since it's been placed next to too small, the sentence seems to say that it's the way the jacket was hanging that is too small (instead of the jacket itself). To correct it, we move the modifier closer to the noun it describes. Examples Modifiers are underlined, while the thingsbeing correctly and incorrectly modified are in bold. Error: The jacket was too small on the sale rack. Fix: The jacket on the sale rack was too small. Error: Ray wore his one-collared shirt to the job interview, which was stained with mustard. Fix: Ray wore his one-collared shirt, which was stained with mustard, to the job interview. Error: She handed out brownies to children wrapped in foil. Fix: She handed out brownies wrapped in foil to children. There I was, just dangling in the breeze like a modifier ... Parallel Construction To use parallel construction is to writea list in which all the items have the same grammatical format.For example, if two things in a list are verbs ending in -ing, the third item should also be a verb ending in -ing. If oneitem in a list is aprepositional phrase,then the second item should also be a prepositional phrase. Examples Words or phrases that are already parallel are in bold, whereas those that need to be corrected to parallel are underlined. Error: The couple bought the concert tickets, arrived at the theater, and they sat down in their seats. Fix: The couple bought the concert tickets, arrived at the theater, and sat down in their seats. Error: Painting your bedroom requires picking a color, measuring the walls, get the right tools, and buying paint. Fix: Painting your bedroom requires picking a color, measuring the walls, getting the right tools, and buying paint. Error: The workshop had a whiteboard on one wall,a set of shelves against another wall, and a third wall had many drawers for tools. Fix: The workshop had a whiteboard on one wall,a set of shelves against another wall, and many drawers for tools along a third wall. Error: Her essay focused on characters' reactionsto bad news and showing how these characters handled success. Fix: Her essay focused on characters' reactions to bad news and showed how these characters handled success. Set up parallel tracks so your sentence train can roll safely on its way. Plurals and Possessives The SAT will test your understanding of how to make nouns plural (when there is two or more of something) and how to make them possessive (when you have to explain that something belongs to something or someone else). To make a plural nounthat doesn't own anything, add s to the end of asingular noun: one student, but three students To make a possessive singular noun, add apostrophe + s to the end of a singular noun: the pencil that belongs to one student= the student’s pencil To make a possessive plural noun, add an apostrophe to the end of a plural noun: the classroom that belongs to three students = the students’ classroom Examples Error: Every morning, many hawk’s circled the field, looking for prey. Fix: Every morning, many hawks circled the field, looking for prey. Error: The more I read the novel, the closer I felt to the authors’ point of view. Fix: The more I read the novel, the closer I felt to the author’s point of view. Error: Art Deco furniture is marked by the artists use of geometric shapes, curves, strong colors, and new materials, such as plastics. Fix: Art Deco furniture is marked by the artist’s use of geometric shapes, curves, strong colors, and new materials, such as plastics. That man and that jacket belong to that dog- they are that dog's belongings. Pronouns A pronoun is a part of speech stands in for anoun. For example, the pronoun she can stand in for the woman or Queen Elizabeth. But unlike nouns, pronouns change their form if they're used in different ways.These are the ways that pronouns are tested on the SAT. Subject vs Object Pronouns Nouns and pronouns can be either the subjects or the objects of verbs. Subjects do verbs and objects have verbs done to them. For instance, in the sentence, "A dog chases its tail,"dogis the subject noun, chasesis the verb that it's doing, and tail is the object noun. Unlike nouns such asdog or tail, pronounschange form depending on whether they're subjects or objects. For example, in the phrase she likes him, the woman is the subject, so the pronoun is she. On the other hand,in the phrase he likes her, the woman is the object, so the pronoun changes toher. Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns I me you you he him she her it it we us they them If you’re trying to figure out whether to use a subject or object pronoun when dealing with a compound noun, one trick is to take out the other noun and try the sentence with just the pronoun- you’ll quickly know which is right. In the first example below, me ate dinner is clearly wrong. In the third example as well,sold cookies to I is obviously incorrect. Examples Error: Me and my parents ate dinner. Fix: My parents and I ate dinner. Error: The tourists asked my friends and I for directions. Fix: The tourists asked my friends and me for directions. Error: The Girl Scouts sold cookies to my sister and I. Fix: The Girl Scouts sold cookies to my sister and me. Who vs Whom Whois a relative pronoun which can start either a dependent or independent clause within a sentence.Whois used when the pronoun is the subject doing the action, whereaswhom isused when the pronoun is the object of the action. What's tricky about whois that figuring out whether to use its subject or object form doesn't depend on its antecedent. Instead, you have to see what rolewho is playing inside its own clause. For instance, in example 1, even though people is an object of the verb benefits, inside the clause who understand the tax code,who is the subject of the verb understand.On the other hand, in example 2, even though skydivers is the subject of the sentence, in the clause whom many people greatly admire, whom is the object of the verb admire. One trick is to replace the who or whom with I or me to see whether you need the subject or object form.In this case, me understand the tax codedoesn’t work, and neither does many people greatly admire I. Examples Subjects are bold, verbs are in italics, and objects are underlined. Error:The essay points out that the reduction in taxes only benefits those people whom understand the tax code. Fix:The essay points out that the reduction in taxes only benefits those people who understand the tax code. Error: Skydivers, who many people greatly admire, tend to be comfortable with risk-taking and in excellent physical shape. Fix: Skydivers, whom many people greatly admire, tend to be comfortable with risk-taking and in excellent physical shape. Pronouns and Antecedents Ifthere is a pronoun, it should be obvious what noun the pronoun is referring back to.If it's unclear which noun a pronoun is referring to, or if a pronoun has no antecedent, the sentence needs to be rewritten in one of two ways: either the pronoun can be replaced with a noun, or the phrase can be simplified. For instance, in example 1, this could refer either to Industrial Revolution, resistance group, mechanization, or labor force, so a noun is added. Meanwhile, in example 3, there is no antecedent for them, so the sentence has to be rewritten. Examples The unclear pronouns are in bold, while corrected pronouns and antecedents are underlined. Error: During the Industrial Revolution in England, a resistance groupsprang up to protest the mechanization of the labor force. Workers associated with this began to break and burn factory machinery to protest what they saw as unfair treatment. Fix: During the Industrial Revolution in England, a resistance groupsprang up to protest the mechanization of the labor force. Workers associated with this factionbegan to break and burn factory machinery to protest what they saw as unfair treatment. Error: The files arranged by the temporary workers were out of order, so management sent them back to the main office. Fix:The files arranged by the temporary workers were out of order, so management sent the filesback to the main office. Error: The amount of entertainment available is increasing steadily; soon there will be more than 5,000 shows for them to distribute to subscribers. Fix: The amount of entertainment available is increasing steadily; soon there will be more than 5,000 shows for distribution to subscribers. Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement Pronouns have to match their antecedents in various ways. This means that when we use pronouns more than once in a sentence, we have to use the same personthroughout.(To clarify: 1st person means I or we, 2nd person means you, and 3rd person means he, she, it, or they.) This also means that plural nouns are matched withplural pronouns, and singular pronouns refer back to singular nouns. Examples Mismatched pronouns and antecedents are in bold, while matching pronouns and antecedents are underlined. Error: If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, you have to know the rules of the game. Fix: If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, she has to know the rules of the game. Error: Like its distant oceanic relatives whales, hippopotamuses can alter their density to sink or float in water. Fix:Like their distant oceanic relatives whales, hippopotamuses can alter their density to sink or float in water. Error: After acquiring several new companies, the multinational corporation moved their headquarters to a state with more favorable tax loop holes. Fix:After acquiring several new companies, the multinational corporation moved its headquarters to a state with more favorable tax loop holes. That vs Who The basic concept behind these relative pronouns is simple: who is the pronoun for a person or people, and that is the pronoun for everything else. Examples Mismatched relative pronouns are in bold, while matching pronouns and antecedents are underlined. Error: Coaching can be difficult for peoplethat have a hard time planning strategy on the field. Fix: Coaching can be difficult for people who have a hard time planning strategy on the field. Error: The scientific establishment who rejected Giordano Bruno’s theory that the earth revolves around the sun later had to acknowledge its mistake. Fix: The scientific establishment that rejected Giordano Bruno’s theory that the earth revolves around the sun later had to acknowledge its mistake. Error: The decision was made bythe director, wantingto organize the group in a more efficient way. Fix:The decision was made bythe director, who wanted to organize the group in a more efficient way. Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to a person, place, or thing that is unknown or unspecified.Many indefinite pronounsthat seem like they're referring to multiple things or people are actually singular. This means that they use singular forms of verbs: everyone is instead of everyone are (examples 1 and 2).This also means that any nouns that refer to them alsohave to be singular and not plural: no one wants to be a dropout instead of no one wants to be dropouts (examples 3 and 4). Person Place Thing everyone everybody everywhere everything someone somebody somewhere something anyone anybody anywhere anything no one nobody nowhere nothing each (of these) either (of these) neither (of these) Examples Pronouns and matching verbs or nouns are underlined, while mismatched verbs or nouns are in bold. Error: On big-budget movies, each of the actors have large, well-decorated trailers. Fix: On big-budget movies, each of the actors has a large, well-decorated trailer. Error: Every one of the experts invited to speak at the conference were unable to make it. Fix: Every one of the experts invited to speak at the conference was unable to make it. Error: Anyone thinking about becoming writers must be excellent readers. Fix: Anyone thinking about becoming a writer must be an excellent reader. Error: Either of these desks would be great surfaces to work on. Fix: Either of these desks would be a great surface to work on. Its/It’s,Their/They’re/There, Your/You’re, Whose/Who’s The different forms and abbreviations of these pronouns are frequently mixed up, but they're something you simply have to memorize.Here are some tricks to use if you're stuck: Take the abbreviation apart: does it is, you are, they are, or who is work in the sentence? Then use it’s, you’re, they’re, or who’s. If the sentence is trying to say that something belongs to something else, use its, your, their, or whose. If the sentence is trying to point to a specific or vague place, use there. Pronoun Definition Examples its belonging to it the puppy’s toy =its toy the leg of the table =its leg it’s it is the sky is cloudy =it is cloudy = it’s cloudy the book is long = it is long =it’s long their belonging to them the sisters’ bedroom =their bedroom the color of walls =their color they’re they are flowers are blooming = they are blooming = they’re blooming friends are great = they are great = they’re great there in/on that place existing somewhere in the world exist many trees= there are manytrees the pants are on the shelf = the pants are there your belonging to you this is my dinner, and this is your dinner you’re you are you are delighted = you’re delighted you are a student = you’re a student whose belonging to whom? I don’t know who owns this house = whose is this house? who’s who is who from the team is coming? = who’s coming? Examples Incorrect forms of these words are underlined, while the correct ones are bold. Error: Who could have known that Da Vinci’s most mysterious painting would become his most famous, with it’s unique half-smile forever expressing some unknowable emotion. Fix: Who could have known that Da Vinci’s most mysterious painting would become his most famous, with its unique half-smile forever expressing some unknowable emotion. Error: Your just like all the other Americans visiting England who think that cricket is closely related to baseball. Fix: You’re just like all the other Americans visiting England who think that cricket is closely related to baseball. Error: Having several books to return to the library, Maria checks they’re due dates to make sure she won’t have to pay any fines. Fix: Having several books to return to the library, Maria checks their due dates to make sure she won’t have to pay any fines. Error: Dismayed that no one agreed with his argument, the city councilman asked, â€Å"Whose with me on this?† Fix: Dismayed that no one agreed with his argument, the city councilman asked, â€Å"Who’s with me on this?† Error: Every study we have come across suggests that bicycles are an excellent way to get around: there economical, good for public health, and environmentally friendly. Fix: Every study we have come across suggests that bicycles are an excellent way to get around: they’re economical, good for public health, and environmentally friendly. Feeling overwhelmed by grammar is apparently part of the human condition. Here's a grammar book from 1526. Just imagine all those monks having to study pronouns in Latin ... Verbs There are twomain issues with verbs tested on the SAT: verb tenses and subject-verb agreement. Verb Tense There are ninebasic verb tenses, threefor each time period (present, past, future). Below are the basic tenses formed from the verbto sing.As you can see, some of the verb tensesare created by adding forms of the verbs have, be,and do. Time Period Verb Forms Present Simple Present: They sing.Present Continuous: They are singing.Present Perfect: They have sung. Past Simple Past: They sang.Past Continuous: They were singing.Past Perfect: They had sung. Future Future: They will sing.Future Continuous: They will be singing.Future Perfect: They will have sung. Generally, the idea is to keep verbs in a single sentence in the same time period, especiallyif a sentence is describing things that happen during the same time period (example 1). If a sentence contains a shift in chronological time, verb tenses should shift to account for the change in time (example 3). Examples Verbs in the same tense are underlined, while verbs in the wrong tense are in bold. Error: According to the cardiologist, since the patient’s arteries are (present)dangerously clogged with cholesterol deposits, the medical team had (past)to check for elevated blood pressure and other heart attack risks. Fix: According to the cardiologist, since the patient’s arteries are (present)dangerously clogged with cholesterol deposits, the medical team has (present)to check for elevated blood pressure and other heart attack risks. Error: Even though office hours had been(past) over for some time, the professor and her student are continuing (present)their productive work on the research project. Fix: Even though office hours have been(present) over for some time, the professor and her student are continuing (present)their productive work on the research project. Error: If the pace of technological advancements continues (present), in the future we ride(present) self-driving cars. Fix: If the pace of technological advancements continues (present), in the future we will ride(future) self-driving cars. Subject/Verb Agreement Nouns and verbs are both parts of speech with numbers and are written differently if they refer to just one thing or multiple things. One dog runs fast, for example, but two dogs run fast. Subject/verb agreement just means that the noun and verb have the same number (singular or plural).One point to remember is thatcollective nouns are singular (a â€Å"crowd of people laughs† instead of â€Å"crowd of people laugh†). A collective noun is a noun that stands for a group of things but is grammatically treated as a single unit (i.e., a singular noun). Examples Matching subjects and verbs are underlined, while verbs that don't match subjects are in bold. Error: A recent survey found that the furniture in most people's homes are mostly made of wood. Fix: A recent survey found that the furniture (singular) in most people's homes is (singular) mostly made of wood. Error: There isa beaker and three pipettes on the top shelf of the cupboard. Corrected: There are (plural) a beaker and three pipettes (plural) on the top shelf of the cupboard. Error: I am trying to read the name of the store across the street, but a crowd of people keep getting in the way. Fix: I am trying to read the name of the store across the street, but a crowd (singular) of people keeps (singular) getting in the way. After a poorly verbed pitch, the batter verbed the ball to midfield. The shortstop verbed to the left, verbing the ball just in time to verb the runner out. Illogical Comparisons There are two different kinds of comparisons that break the rules of logic. The first relies on the idea that you can only compare things that are alike in some way.One trick to spotting illogical comparisons is that they tend to happen when a sentence is comparing something that belongs to someone or something else by using the comparison word than. You have to make sure that the two things on either side of thethan are in the same category (examples 1 and 2). For instance, you can compare apples and oranges because both are fruits. But if both Stanley and Cora have apples, you can't say the following: I like Stanley's apples better than Cora. You'd have to say this: I like Stanley's apples better than Cora's apples. Or, more simply, this: I like Stanley's apples better than Cora's. The second kind of illogical comparison that the SAT likes to test is the notion that you can't compare something toallthings of that type.Instead, you can onlycompare that thing toall other things of that type (example 3). Examples The two things that each sentence is comparing are underlined. Error:Some regulators believe that new drugs should have to go through an even more rigorous testing process than patients who prefer the one currently in place. Fix:Some regulators believe that new drugs should have to go through an even more rigorous testing process than the one currently in place, which patients prefer. Error:Charles Dickens's epic novels, which are almost universally admired by readers and critics alike, are more sweeping than Jane Austen, who writes novels of manners. Fix:Charles Dickens's epic novels, which are almost universally admired by readers and critics alike, are more sweeping than Jane Austen'snovels of manners. Error: For astronauts, the moon is easier to get to than any space object. Fix:For astronauts, the moon is easier to get to than any other space object. You can compare the polar bear to the girls, but you can't compare the polar bear's favorite toy to the girls. Unless that is one extremely dangerous zoo. The Bottom Line: All SAT Grammar Rules You Should Know Here is a quick summary of all the SAT grammar rules we talked about in this article: Concision andRedundancy- the SAT is all about being as succinct as possible Overly WordyPhrases - often, one word is better than many;sometimes, extra wordsshould just be deleted Redundancy- if a sentenceexpresses the same bit of information two or more times,delete the repetition Combining Simple Sentences- make one sentence into a dependent clause of the other through arepeated noun,using prepositions such asbefore, after,orfollowing,orby inserting whatever is being defined into the defining sentence Idioms and Conventional Expressions Verbal Phrases- verb + preposition pairs thatalwaysgo together PrepositionalIdioms- groups of words thatalwaysend on specific prepositions Commonly Confused Words- English has a lot of homonyms (words that sound similar to each other but mean very different things) Language Formality- avoiding slang and words/phrases that sound too casual Conjunctions and Conjunctive Adverbs- words that explain how two clauses in a sentence or successive sentences relate to one another Explanation- conjunctions such asbecause, consequently,andfor examplelink events in a cause-and-effect relationship Contradiction or Digression- conjunctions such ashowever, but,andneverthelessdescribe a negative or opposing relationship between events Similarity and Emphasis- conjunctions such asmoreoverandlikewiseconnect things that are equal or similar, or add examples to an argument Punctuation Punctuating Modifiers- if the sentence needs a modifier in order to make sense, the modifier doesn’t needcommas, but if you cantake out the modifier without losing any meaning, the modifier should be surrounded by commas Using Dashes- separate out a word/phrase/clause that is explanatory but not crucial Punctuating â€Å"Such As†- put a comma beforesuch as(and no comma after it) Formatting Lists- list items aretypically separated by commas,with a comma before theandororthat precedes the last list item Using Colons- indicates a list is coming up and that after the list the sentence will end; also used to introduce an explanation, definition, or example Using Semicolons- separates list items that have commas; fixes run-on sentences by separating two independent clauses without a conjunction Sentences- made up ofindependentand dependent clauses Sentence Fragments- sentences made of anything less than an independent clause Run-on Sentences- multiple independent clauses joined by only a comma or no punctuation at all DependentClauses as Subjects- if a sentence uses a whole dependentclause as a subject, treat the dependent clause as a singular noun Faulty Modifiers- words or phrases that describe something Dangling Modifier- a descriptive phrase that begins a sentence, has a comma after it, and has the noun it describesnotplaced right after the comma Misplaced Modifier- a descriptive phrase that's not close enough to the thing it's describing, making it sound like it'sreferring tothe wrong thing Parallel Construction- a list in which all the items have the same grammatical format Plurals and Possessives- plural iswhen there are two or more of something;possessiveis when something belongs to something else Plural Noun- add s to the end of asingular noun Possessive Singular Noun- add apostrophe + sto the end of a singular noun Possessive Plural Noun- add an apostrophe to the end of a plural noun Pronouns- parts of speech that stand in for anoun (its antecedent) Subject vs Object Pronouns- pronounschange form depending on whether they're subjects or objects in a sentence Who vs Whom- whois the subject form;whom is the object form Pronouns and Antecedents- it should be obvious which noun eachpronoun is referring to Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement- pronouns have to match their antecedents' person and number That vs Who- who is for a person or people; that is for everything else Indefinite Pronouns- pronouns such as everyone that seemplural but are actually singular Its/It’s,Their/They’re/There, Your/You’re, Whose/Who’s- you have to memorize these homonyms Verbs- the SAT tests tense agreement and subject-verb agreement Verb Tense- keep verbs in a single sentence within the same time period: present, past, or future Subject/Verb Agreement- anoun and itsverb must have the same number (singular or plural) Illogical Comparisons- you can only compare things that are alike in some way, and you can't compare something toallthings of that type What's Next? Knowing the grammar rules is just the beginning. Check out our complete guide to SAT Writing for a comprehensive take on all the topics andstrategies you need to know for the SAT. Excelling on SAT Writing also requires a lot of practice,so make sure you use our complete list of official and high-quality unofficial SAT practice testsin your prep. Want an 800 on SAT Reading and Writing? First, getour comprehensive advice on how to study for the SAT. Then,read our detailed guides onhow to get a perfect Writing scoreand how to get a perfect Reading score. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by SAT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. 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Friday, February 21, 2020

Personal Statement for Postgraduate Study Applications Essay

Personal Statement for Postgraduate Study Applications - Essay Example Nevertheless, it allowed me to define what career I would like to choose. My graduate education showed me the importance of organization in business sphere that is why I choose business management as a possible career. Management is getting things done through other people (Caroselli, 1). As for me, good organization is crucial for getting positive results in any sphere of business. A good manager is a person, who can plan, control, motivate and reward the employees. I feel I need the education that would give me those skills. Another sphere, which makes me interested, is economic and finance. I feel that this course should help me to enhance my knowledge in the peculiarities of financial management of the company. I've always felt the importance of acquiring skills in money management. I hope this course can teach me the mechanics of financial functioning of the company, and provide knowledge on the mechanisms of getting profits and minimizing losses. In addition, I've always been interest in global economics. I hope that an advanced course in economic and finance may grant me deeper insight into this issue. For me working with schedules and deadlines is the most challenging issue.